The Muslim world was divided into two major religious tendencies:
On the one hand, the Fatimid caliphate in Cairo, from Shiite ritual, occupied Egypt, Palestine and Syria.
On the other hand, the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad, from Sunni ritual, whose power extended from the banks of the Euphrates to the Indus plain.
The impotence of the Abbasid caliphs, subjected to the power of their Bûyids emirs acting as the mayors of the Merovingian palaces, the decadence of the latter and the infighting between the supporters of the two religious rites will cause the end of the Abbasid hegemony and the emergence of a new power : The Seljuk Turks of the Aral Plains.
Tughril Beg, leader of the Seljuk Turks, after invading Khorassan (the region between present-day Turkmenistan and Iran) seized Isfahan and made it its capital.
The Byzantine Empire, plagued by violent internal struggles for the possession of power, tried as best it can to maintain intact its eastern borders constantly attacked by the incursions of Bûyids emirs.
In Western Europe, real mosaic of small feudal states, allies and enemies by turn, Henry 1st, grandson of Hugh Capet, tried to strengthen his authority and the maintenance of the Capetian dynasty against many rival barons, including are his own brother Robert and Count Eudes II of Blois.
In England, the struggles of succession between rival Saxon dynasties bring on the throne Edward "the Confessor", last representative of the lineage of Wessex.
In Germany, the Emperor Henri III intervened in the affairs of the Church due to the schism between three popes (1046), Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Gregory VI. He organized an expedition to Italy to settle disputes and to restore order to the Holy See.
On the side of the Iberian Peninsula, the Visigothic kingdom has collapsed for a long time following the invasions of Ommeyades emirs, linked to the Abbasids of Baghdâd, which made Cordoba their capital. At the beginning of the 10th century, Emir Abd er Rhaman III proclaimed himself caliph and thus created the spiritual split between Baghdad and Cordoba. Less than a century later, these Ommeyads disappeared in the anarchy caused by the revolt of Taifas which will result in the creation of a multitude of small independent and rival Muslim kingdoms.
In the north, taking advantage of this anarchy, the three small Christian kingdoms of Castile, Navarre and Aragon united against the Muslim threat.
On the side of the Great Plains of Northern and Eastern Europe, the shores of the Baltic Sea are divided between the kingdoms of the Viking tribes who disputed the possession of lands with many Slavic tribes and feudal states of the Germanic empire. Further east, Kiev became the seat of an important Slavic principality whose borders stretch from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea.
In May, the King of France Henry 1st married Anne of Kiev, daughter of Yaroslav 1st "the Wise", Grand Prince of the Rus' of Kiev of the Riourikid dynasty, and Ingigerd, daughter of the King of Sweden Olof III "Skötkonung".
The armies of Seljuk invaded and devastated Armenia in the Kars region, near the Caspian Sea.
Robert Guiscard, son of the Norman Lord Tancred de Hauteville, crushed the pontifical army in Civitella and captured Pope Leo IX.
In Italy, En Italie, beginning of the conflict between Guelphs and Ghibellines
On August 22th, the armies of England and Scotland clash near Northallerton in the "Battle of the Standard". The battle ended with the defeat of the Scots and the signing of the Treaty of Durham the following year.
Saladin suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Arsuf